Our research is focused on vaccine design to elicit HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). We have identified or characterized numerous antibodies to HIV’s envelope glycoprotein (Env) and its subunits, gp120 and gp41, and were among the first to show a highly conserved region on gp41, the membrane proximal external region (MPER), is a target of multiple bnAbs elicited during natural infection. Recently, we discovered a bnAb whose inferred germline precursor (iGL) recognizes the MPER on Env in the lipid bilayer, a rare phenotype and a useful a tool to identify Env vaccine candidates that engage germline B cells.

            We have used directed evolution, rational design, and chemical strategies to modify and stabilize the HIV Env trimer for immunization studies. We devised a means to produce high-level Env virus-like particles (hVLPs) through up-regulation of Env display via iterative host cell selection. Our hVLPs were used in a recent collaboration that revealed novel structural features of membrane Env spikes, including their position atop the edge of the underlying Gag hexamer/lattice on intact virions. We developed a vaccine platform, termed MELs, which consist of purified and fixed full-length Env in liposomes that elicited tier 2 cross-neutralizing antibody responses in rabbits. We are currently using MELs in human Ig knockin (KI) mouse models to elicit HIV bnAbs targeting several vulnerabilities including the CD4BS, fusion peptide, and the MPER

            In other studies, we have elucidated the mechanism-of-action of small molecule HIV entry inhibitors. We collaborate with investigators within and outside of Scripps, with experts on B cell biology, structural biology, HIV, chemistry, and next-generation sequencing (NGS) bioinformatics to enhance our research. Our approaches to antibody research and discovery as well as to vaccine design are also relevant to other pathogens and diseases.

We aim to create a safe space where ethnic, racial, cultural, religious, as well as gender differences are respected, and intellectual curiosity flourishes. We seek to partner with and mentor young scientists so they can take on innovative research projects and make important discoveries.

Selected References

Zhang L, Irimia A, He L, Landais E, Rantalainen K, Leaman DP, Vollbrecht T, Stano A, Sands DI, Kim AS; IAVI Protocol G Investigators, Poignard P, Burton DR, Murrell B, Ward AB, Zhu J, Wilson IA, Zwick MB (2019) An MPER antibody neutralizes HIV-1 using germline features shared among donors. Nat Commun. 10(1):5389.

Stano A, Leaman DP, Kim AS, Zhang L, Autin L, Ingale J, Gift SK, Truong J, Wyatt RT, Olson AJ, Zwick MB. (2017) Dense Array of Spikes on HIV-1 Virion Particles.  J Virol. 91(14):e00415-17. 

Leaman DP, Lee JH, Ward AB & Zwick MB (2015) Immunogenic display of purified chemically cross-linked HIV-1 spikes. J Virol. 89(13):6725-45.

Kim AS, Leaman DP & Zwick MB (2014) Antibody to gp41 MPER alters functional properties of HIV-1 Env without complete neutralization. PLoS Pathog. 10(7):e1004271. 

Selection of “High mEnv” cell lines
HIV Env tilting on the viral membrane (Mangala-Prasad et al., Cell, 2022)
HIV Env is positioned above the edge of the underlying Gag hexamer (Mangala-Prasad et al., Cell, 2022)
PGZL1.H4K3 binding to viral membrane-MPER epitope
PGZL1 germline revertants bind to MPER and neutralize HIV
Membrane Env Liposomes (MELs)



Ph.D., Biochemistry, Simon Fraser University, 1999
B.S., Molecular Biology, University of British Columbia, 1992

Joint Appointments
Faculty, Graduate Program, The Scripps Research Institute

Professional Activities
2013-Present: Associate Professor, The Scripps Research Institute
2013-Present: Editorial Board Member, Journal of Virology
2007-Present: Faculty, Graduate Program, The Scripps Research Institute
2004-2012: Assistant Professor, The Scripps Research Institute
2002-2004: Senior Research Associate, The Scripps Research Institute
1999-2002: Research Associate, The Scripps Research Institute

2007: ICAAC Young Investigator Award, American Society of Microbiology
2002-2003: Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation Scholarship Award
2001: Young Investigator Award (Travel Scholarship), International AIDS Society
2000-2001: Post-Doctoral Fellowship, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
1998: Graduate Fellowship, Simon Fraser University
1996-1998: Post Graduate Scholarship, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada



Postdoctoral Fellow Positions: Qualified postdoctoral candidates are asked to send their CV, cover letter and a list of three references to zwick(at)  Applicants are also encouraged to consider applying for external funding.

Graduate Student Positions: Students interested in joining the Zwick Group should apply to The Scripps Research Institute Graduate Program.

(858) 784-42833

Zwick Laboratory
The Scripps Research Institute
10550 North Torrey Pines Road
La Jolla, California 92037



Mangala Prasad V, Leaman DP, Lovendahl KN, Croft JT, Benhaim MA, Hodge EA, Zwick MB, Lee KK. Cryo-ET of Env on intact HIV virions reveals structural variation and positioning on the Gag lattice. Cell. 2022 Feb 17;185(4):641-653.e17. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2022.01.013. Epub 2022 Feb 4.PMID: 35123651 


Leaman DP, Stano A, Chen Y, Zhang L, Zwick MB. Membrane Env Liposomes Facilitate Immunization with Multivalent Full-Length HIV Spikes. J Virol. 2021 Jun 10;95(13):e0000521. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00005-21. Epub 2021 Jun 10.PMID: 33883221 

Rujas E, Leaman DP, Insausti S, Carravilla P, García-Porras M, Largo E, Morillo I, Sánchez-Eugenia R, Zhang L, Cui H, Iloro I, Elortza F, Julien JP, Eggeling C, Zwick MB, Caaveiro JMM, Nieva JL. Focal accumulation of aromaticity at the CDRH3 loop mitigates 4E10 polyreactivity without altering its HIV neutralization profile. iScience. 2021 Sep 24;24(9):102987. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2021.102987. eCollection 2021 Sep 24. PubMed PMID: 34505005; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC8413895.


Kumar S, Ju B, Shapero B, Lin X, Ren L, Zhang L, Li D, Zhou Z, Feng Y, Sou C, Mann CJ, Hao Y, Sarkar A, Hou J, Nunnally C, Hong K, Wang S, Ge X, Su B, Landais E, Sok D, Zwick MB, He L, Zhu J, Wilson IA, Shao Y. A VH1-69 antibody lineage from an infected Chinese donor potently neutralizes HIV-1 by targeting the V3 glycan supersite. Sci Adv. 2020 Sep 16;6(38):eabb1328.

Rujas E, Insausti S, Leaman DP, Carravilla P, González-Resines S, Monceaux V, Sánchez-Eugenia R, García-Porras M, Iloro I, Zhang L, Elortza F, Julien JP, Saéz-Cirión A, Zwick MB, Eggeling C, Ojida A, Domene C, Caaveiro JMM, Nieva JL. Affinity for the Interface Underpins Potency of Antibodies Operating In Membrane Environments.Cell Rep. 2020 Aug 18;32(7):108037.

Rantalainen K, Berndsen ZT, Antanasijevic A, Schiffner T, Zhang X, Lee WH, Torres JL, Zhang L, Irimia A, Copps J, Zhou KH, Kwon YD, Law WH, Schramm CA, Verardi R, Krebs SJ, Kwong PD, Doria-Rose NA, Wilson IA, Zwick MB, Yates JR 3rd, Schief WR, Ward AB. HIV-1 Envelope and MPER Antibody Structures in Lipid Assemblies. Cell Rep. 2020 Apr 28;31(4):107583.


Zhang L, Irimia A, He L, Landais E, Rantalainen K, Leaman DP, Vollbrecht T, Stano A, Sands DI, Kim AS; IAVI Protocol G Investigators, Poignard P, Burton DR, Murrell B, Ward AB, Zhu J, Wilson IA, Zwick MB. An MPER antibody neutralizes HIV-1 using germline features shared among donors. Nat Commun. 2019 Nov 26;10(1):5389.

Dubrovskaya V, Tran K, Ozorowski G, Guenaga J, Wilson R, Bale S, Cottrell CA, Turner HL, Seabright G, O’Dell S, Torres JL, Yang L, Feng Y, Leaman DP, Vázquez Bernat N, Liban T, Louder M, McKee K, Bailer RT, Movsesyan A, Doria-Rose NA, Pancera M, Karlsson Hedestam GB, Zwick MB, Crispin M, Mascola JR, Ward AB, Wyatt RT. Vaccination with Glycan-Modified HIV NFL Envelope Trimer-Liposomes Elicits Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies to Multiple Sites of Vulnerability. Immunity. 2019 Nov 19;51(5):915-929.e7.


Rujas E, Leaman DP, Insausti S, Ortigosa-Pascual L, Zhang L, Zwick MB, Nieva JL. Functional optimization of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody 10E8 by promotion of membrane interactions. 2018 Mar 28;92(8):e02249-17.


Gift SK, Leaman DP, Zhang L, Kim AS, Zwick MB. Functional stability of HIV-1 envelope trimer affects accessibility to broadly neutralizing antibodies at its apex. J Virol. 2017 Nov 30;91(24):e01216-17.

Bale S, Goebrech G, Stano A, Wilson R, Ota T, Tran K, Ingale J, Zwick MB, Wyatt RT. Covalent linkage of HIV-1 trimers to synthetic liposomes elicits improved B cell antibody responses. J Virol. 2017 Jul 27;91(16):1-14.

Stano A, Leaman DP, Kim As, Zhang L, Autin L, Ingale J, Gift SK, Truong J, Wyatt R, Olson AJ, Zwick MB. Dense array of spikes on HIV-1 virion particles. J Virol. 2017 Jun 26;91(14):e00415-17.


Ingale J, Stano A, Guenaga J, Sharma SK, Nemazee D, Zwick MB, Wyatt RT. High-Density Array of Well-Ordered HIV-1 Spikes on Synthetic Liposomal Nanoparticles Efficiently Activate B Cells. Cell Rep. 2016 May 31;15:1-14.

Reichart TM, Baksh MM, Rhee JK, Fiedler JD, Sligar SG, Finn MG, Zwick MB, Dawson PE. Trimerization of the HIV transmembrane domain in lipid bilayers modulates broadly neutralizing antibody binding. Angew Chem Int Ed Eng. 2016 Jan 22;55(8):2688-92.


Lee JH, Leaman DP, Kim AS, de la Peña AT, Sliepen K, Yasmeen A, Derking R, Ramos A, de Taeye SW, Ozorowski G, Klein F, Burton DR, Nussenzweig MC, Poignard P, Moore JP, Klasse PJ, Sanders RW, Zwick MB, Wilson IA, Ward AB. Antibodies to a conformational epitope on gp41 neutralize HIV-1 by destabilizing the HIV-1 spikes. Nat Commun. 2015 Sept 25;6:8167.

Leaman DP, Lee JH, Ward AB, Zwick MB. Immunogenic display of purified chemically crosslinked HIV-1 spikes. J Virol. 2015 Jul 1;89(13):6725-45.


Kim AS, Leaman DP, Zwick MB. Antibody to gp41 MPER alters functional properties of HIV-1 Env without complete neutralization. PLOS Pathog. 2014 Jul;10(7): e1004271.

Falkowska E, Le KM, Ramos A, Doores KJ, Lee JH, Blattner C, Ramirez A, Derking R, van Gils MJ, Liang CH, Mcbride R, von Bredow B, Shivatare SS, Wu CY, Chan-Hui PY, Liu Y, Feizi T, Zwick MB, Koff WC, Seaman MS, Swiderek K, Moore JP, Evans D, Paulson JC, Wong CH, Ward AB, Wilson IA, Sanders RW, Poignard P, Burton DR. Broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies define a glycan-dependent epitope on the prefusion conformation of gp41 on cleaved envelope trimers. Immunity. 2014 May 15;40(5):657-68.


Gach JS, Quendler H, Tong T, Narayan KM, Du SX, Whalen RG, Binley JM, Forthal DN, Poignard P, Zwick MB. A human antibody to the CD4 binding site of gp120 capable of highly potent but sporadic cross clade neutralization of primary HIV-1. PLOS One. 2013 Aug 26;8(8):e72054.

Doyle-Cooper C, Hudson KE, Cooper AB, Ota T, Skog P, Dawson PE, Zwick MB, Schief WR, Burton DR, Nemazee D. Immune tolerance negatively regulates B cells in knock-in mice expressing broadly neutralizing HIV antibody 4E10. J Immunol. 2013 Sep 15;191(6):3186-91.

Leaman DP, Zwick MB. Increased functional stability and homogeneity of viral envelope spikes through directed evolution. PLOS Pathog. 2013 Feb 28;9(2):e1003184.

Narayan KM, Agrawal N, Du SX, Muranaka JE, Bauer K, Leaman DP, Phung P, Limoli K, Chen H, Boenig RI, Wrin T, Zwick MB, Whalen RG. Prime-boost immunization of rabbits with HIV-1 gp120 elicits potent neutralization activity against a primary viral isolate. PLOS One. 2013 Jan 9;8(1):e52732.


Gach JS, Leaman DP, Zwick MB. Targeting HIV-1 gp41 in close proximity to the membrane using antibody and other molecules. Curr Top Med Chem. 2011 Dec;11(24):2997-3021.

Stanfield RL, Julien JP, Pejchal R, Gach JS, Zwick MB, Wilson IA. Structure-based design of a protein immunogen that displays an HIV-1 gp41 neutralizing epitope. J Mol Biol. 2011 Dec 2;414(3):460-76.

Agrawal N, Leaman DP, Rowcliffe E, Kinkead H, Nohria R, Akagi J, Bauer K, Du SX, Whalen RG, Burton DR, Zwick MB. Functional stability of unliganded envelope glycoprotein spikes among isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). PLOS One. 2011;6(6):e21339.

Du SX, Xu L, Zhang W, Tang S, Boenig RI, Chen H, Mariano EB, Zwick MB, Parren PW, Burton DR, Wrin T, Petropoulos CJ, Ballantyne JA, Chambers M, Whalen RG. A directed molecular evolution approach to improved immunogenicity of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. PLOS One. 2011;6(6):e20927.


Ingale S, Gach JS, Zwick MB, Dawson PE. Synthesis and analysis of the membrane proximal external region epitopes of HIV-1. J Pept Sci. 2010 Dec;16(12):716-22.

Walker LM, Simek MD, Priddy F, Gach JS, Wagner D, Zwick MB, Phogat SK, Poignard P, Burton DR. A limited number of antibody specificities mediate broad and potent serum neutralization in selected HIV-1 infected individuals. PLOS Pathog. 2010 Aug 5;6(8):e1001028.

Murray EJ, Leaman DP, Pawa N, Perkins H, Pickford C, Perros M, Zwick MB, Butler SL. A low-molecular-weight entry inhibitor of both CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 targets a novel site on gp41. J Virol. 2010 Jul;84(14):7288-99.

Leaman DP, Kinkead H, Zwick MB. In-solution virus capture assay helps deconstruct heterogeneous antibody recognition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 2010 Apr;84(7):3382-95.

Nakamura KJ, Gach JS, Jones L, Semrau K, Walter J, Bibollet-Ruche F, Decker JM, Heath L, Decker WD, Sinkala M, Kankasa C, Thea D, Mullins J, Kuhn L, Zwick MB, Aldrovandi GM. 4E10-resistant HIV-1 isolated from four subjects with rare membrane-proximal external region polymorphisms. PLOS One. 2010 Mar 23;5(3):e9786.

Ofek G, McKee K, Yang Y, Yang ZY, Skinner J, Guenaga FJ, Wyatt R, Zwick MB, Nabel GJ, Mascola JR, Kwong PD. Relationship between antibody 2F5 neutralization of HIV-1 and hydrophobicity of its heavy chain third complementarity-determining region. J Virol. 2010 Mar;84(6):2955-62.

Scherer EM, Leaman DP, Zwick MB, McMichael AJ, Burton DR. Aromatic residues at the edge of the antibody combining site facilitate viral glycoprotein recognition through membrane interactions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jan 26;107(4):1529-34.


Pejchal R, Gach JS, Brunel FM, Cardoso RM, Stanfield RL, Dawson PE, Burton DR, Zwick MB, Wilson IA. A conformational switch in human immunodeficiency virus gp41 revealed by the structures of overlapping epitopes recognized by neutralizing antibodies. J Virol. 2009 Sep;83(17):8451-62.

Song L, Sun ZY, Coleman KE, Zwick MB, Gach JS, Wang JH, Reinherz EL, Wagner G, Kim M. Broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies disrupt a hinge-related function of gp41 at the membrane interface. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jun 2;106(22):9057-62.


Reynolds MR, Weiler AM, Weisgrau KL, Piaskowski SM, Furlott JR, Weinfurter JT, Kaizu M, Soma T, León EJ, MacNair C, Leaman DP, Zwick MB, Gostick E, Musani SK, Price DA, Friedrich TC, Rakasz EG, Wilson NA, McDermott AB, Boyle R, Allison DB, Burton DR, Koff WC, Watkins DI. Macaques vaccinated with live-attenuated SIV control replication of heterologous virus. J Exp Med. 2008 Oct 27;205(11):2537-50.

Zwick MB, Gach JS, Burton DR. A welcome burst of human antibodies. Nat Biotechnol. 2008 Aug;26(8):886-7.

Crooks ET, Jiang P, Franti M, Wong S, Zwick MB, Hoxie JA, Robinson JE, Moore PL, Binley JM. Relationship of HIV-1 and SIV envelope glycoprotein trimer occupation and neutralization. Virology. 2008 Aug 1;377(2):364-78.

Nelson JD, Kinkead H, Brunel FM, Leaman D, Jensen R, Louis JM, Maruyama T, Bewley CA, Bowdish K, Clore GM, Dawson PE, Frederickson S, Mage RG, Richman DD, Burton DR, Zwick MB. Antibody elicited against the gp41 N-heptad repeat (NHR) coiled-coil can neutralize HIV-1 with modest potency but non-neutralizing antibodies also bind to NHR mimetics. Virology. 2008 Jul 20;377(1):170-83.


Scherer EM, Zwick MB, Teyton L, Burton DR. Difficulties in eliciting broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies are not explained by cardiolipin autoreactivity. AIDS. 2007 Oct 18;21(16):2131-9.

Zwick MB, Burton DR. HIV-1 neutralization: mechanisms and relevance to vaccine design. Curr HIV Res. 2007 Nov;5(6):608-24.

Saphire EO, Montero M, Menendez A, van Houten NE, Irving MB, Pantophlet R, Zwick MB, Parren PW, Burton DR, Scott JK, Wilson IA. Structure of a high-affinity “mimotope” peptide bound to HIV-1-neutralizing antibody b12 explains its inability to elicit gp120 cross-reactive antibodies. J Mol Biol. 2007 Jun 8;369(3):696-709.

Zhou T, Xu L, Dey B, Hessell AJ, Van Ryk D, Xiang SH, Yang X, Zhang MY, Zwick MB, Arthos J, Burton DR, Dimitrov DS, Sodroski J, Wyatt R, Nabel GJ, Kwong PD. Structural definition of a conserved neutralization epitope on HIV-1 gp120. Nature. 2007 Feb 15;445(7129):732-7.

Nelson JD, Brunel FM, Jensen R, Crooks ET, Cardoso RM, Wang M, Hessell A, Wilson IA, Binley JM, Dawson PE, Burton DR, Zwick MB. An affinity-enhanced neutralizing antibody against the membrane-proximal external region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 recognizes an epitope between those of 2F5 and 4E10. J Virol. 2007 Apr;81(8):4033-43.

Bowley DR, Labrijn AF, Zwick MB, Burton DR. Antigen selection from an HIV-1 immune antibody library displayed on yeast yields many novel antibodies compared to selection from the same library displayed on phage. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2007 Feb;20(2):81-90.


van Houten NE, Zwick MB, Menendez A, Scott JK. Filamentous phage as an immunogenic carrier to elicit focused antibody responses against a synthetic peptide. Vaccine. 2006 May 8;24(19):4188-200. Epub 2006 Jan 11.

Yuste E, Sanford HB, Carmody J, Bixby J, Little S, Zwick MB, Greenough T, Burton DR, Richman DD, Desrosiers RC, Johnson WE. Simian immunodeficiency virus engrafted with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific epitopes: replication, neutralization, and survey of HIV-1-positive plasma. J Virol. 2006 Mar;80(6):3030-41.

Moore PL, Crooks ET, Porter L, Zhu P, Cayanan CS, Grise H, Corcoran P, Zwick MB, Franti M, Morris L, Roux KH, Burton DR, Binley JM. Nature of nonfunctional envelope proteins on the surface of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 2006 Mar;80(5):2515-28.

Brunel FM, Zwick MB, Cardoso RM, Nelson JD, Wilson IA, Burton DR, Dawson PE. Structure-function analysis of the epitope for 4E10, a broadly neutralizing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibody. J Virol. 2006 Feb;80(4):1680-7.


Zwick MB. The membrane-proximal external region of HIV-1 gp41: a vaccine target worth exploring. AIDS. 2005 Nov 4;19(16):1725-37.

Cardoso RM, Zwick MB, Stanfield RL, Kunert R, Binley JM, Katinger H, Burton DR, Wilson IA. Broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibody 4E10 recognizes a helical conformation of a highly conserved fusion-associated motif in gp41. Immunity. 2005 Feb;22(2):163-73.

Ho J, Uger RA, Zwick MB, Luscher MA, Barber BH, MacDonald KS. Conformational constraints imposed on a pan-neutralizing HIV-1 antibody epitope result in increased antigenicity but not neutralizing response. Vaccine. 2005 Feb 18;23(13):1559-73.

Zwick MB, Jensen R, Church S, Wang M, Stiegler G, Kunert R, Katinger H, Burton DR. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibodies 2F5 and 4E10 require surprisingly few crucial residues in the membrane-proximal external region of glycoprotein gp41 to neutralize HIV-1. J Virol. 2005 Jan;79(2):1252-61.


Binley JM, Wrin T, Korber B, Zwick MB, Wang M, Chappey C, Stiegler G, Kunert R, Zolla-Pazner S, Katinger H, Petropoulos CJ, Burton DR. Comprehensive cross-clade neutralization analysis of a panel of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 monoclonal antibodies. J Virol. 2004 Dec;78(23):13232-52.

Zwick MB, Komori HK, Stanfield RL, Church S, Wang M, Parren PW, Kunert R, Katinger H, Wilson IA, Burton DR. The long third complementarity-determining region of the heavy chain is important in the activity of the broadly neutralizing anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibody 2F5. J Virol. 2004 Mar;78(6):3155-61.

Zwick MB, Saphire EO, Burton DR. gp41: HIV’s shy protein. Nat Med. 2004 Feb;10(2):133-4.

Zhang MY, Shu Y, Rudolph D, Prabakaran P, Labrijn AF, Zwick MB, Lal RB, Dimitrov DS. Improved breadth and potency of an HIV-1-neutralizing human single-chain antibody by random mutagenesis and sequential antigen panning. J Mol Biol. 2004 Jan 2;335(1):209-19.


Saphire EO, Stanfield RL, Crispin MD, Morris G, Zwick MB, Pantophlet RA, Parren PW, Rudd PM, Dwek RA, Burton DR, Wilson IA. Crystal structure of an intact human IgG: antibody asymmetry, flexibility, and a guide for HIV-1 vaccine design. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;535:55-66.

Labrijn AF, Poignard P, Raja A, Zwick MB, Delgado K, Franti M, Binley J, Vivona V, Grundner C, Huang CC, Venturi M, Petropoulos CJ, Wrin T, Dimitrov DS, Robinson J, Kwong PD, Wyatt RT, Sodroski J, Burton DR. Access of antibody molecules to the conserved coreceptor binding site on glycoprotein gp120 is sterically restricted on primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 2003 Oct;77(19):10557-65.

Choe H, Li W, Wright PL, Vasilieva N, Venturi M, Huang CC, Grundner C, Dorfman T, Zwick MB, Wang L, Rosenberg ES, Kwong PD, Burton DR, Robinson JE, Sodroski JG, Farzan M. Tyrosine sulfation of human antibodies contributes to recognition of the CCR5 binding region of HIV-1 gp120. Cell. 2003 Jul 25;114(2):161-70.

Calarese DA, Scanlan CN, Zwick MB, Deechongkit S, Mimura Y, Kunert R, Zhu P, Wormald MR, Stanfield RL, Roux KH, Kelly JW, Rudd PM, Dwek RA, Katinger H, Burton DR, Wilson IA. Antibody domain exchange is an immunological solution to carbohydrate cluster recognition. Science. 2003 Jun 27;300(5628):2065-71.

Zwick MB, Kelleher R, Jensen R, Labrijn AF, Wang M, Quinnan GV Jr, Parren PW, Burton DR. A novel human antibody against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 is V1, V2, and V3 loop dependent and helps delimit the epitope of the broadly neutralizing antibody immunoglobulin G1 b12. J Virol. 2003 Jun;77(12):6965-78.

Zwick MB, Parren PW, Saphire EO, Church S, Wang M, Scott JK, Dawson PE, Wilson IA, Burton DR. Molecular features of the broadly neutralizing immunoglobulin G1 b12 required for recognition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120. J Virol. 2003 May;77(10):5863-76.


Zwick MB, Wang M, Poignard P, Stiegler G, Katinger H, Burton DR, Parren PW. Neutralization synergy of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 primary isolates by cocktails of broadly neutralizing antibodies. J Virol. 2001 Dec;75(24):12198-208.

Zwick MB, Labrijn AF, Wang M, Spenlehauer C, Saphire EO, Binley JM, Moore JP, Stiegler G, Katinger H, Burton DR, Parren PW. Broadly neutralizing antibodies targeted to the membrane-proximal external region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein gp41. J Virol. 2001 Nov;75(22):10892-905.

Saphire EO, Parren PW, Pantophlet R, Zwick MB, Morris GM, Rudd PM, Dwek RA, Stanfield RL, Burton DR, Wilson IA. Crystal structure of a neutralizing human IGG against HIV-1: a template for vaccine design. Science. 2001 Aug 10;293(5532):1155-9.

Zwick MB, Bonnycastle LL, Menendez A, Irving MB, Barbas CF 3rd, Parren PW, Burton DR, Scott JK. Identification and characterization of a peptide that specifically binds the human, broadly neutralizing anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibody b12. J Virol. 2001 Jul;75(14):6692-9.


Zwick MB, Shen J, Scott JK. Homodimeric peptides displayed by the major coat protein of filamentous phage. J Mol Biol. 2000 Jul 7;300(2):307-20.

Zwick MB, Bonnycastle LL, Noren KA, Venturini S, Leong E, Barbas CF 3rd, Noren CJ, Scott JK. The maltose-binding protein as a scaffold for monovalent display of peptides derived from phage libraries. Anal Biochem. 1998 Nov 1;264(1):87-97. Erratum in: Anal Biochem 1999 Jan 15;266(2):240.

Zwick MB, Shen J, Scott JK. Phage-displayed peptide libraries. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 1998 Aug;9(4):427-36.

Harris SL, Craig L, Mehroke JS, Rashed M, Zwick MB, Kenar K, Toone EJ, Greenspan N, Auzanneau FI, Marino-Albernas JR, Pinto BM, Scott JK. Exploring the basis of peptide-carbohydrate crossreactivity: evidence for discrimination by peptides between closely related anti-carbohydrate antibodies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Mar 18;94(6):2454-9.

Garcia-del Portillo F, Zwick MB, Leung KY, Finlay BB. Salmonella induces the formation of filamentous structures containing lysosomal membrane glycoproteins in epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Nov 15;90(22):10544-8.

Garcia-del Portillo F, Zwick MB, Leung KY, Finlay BB. Intracellular replication of Salmonella within epithelial cells is associated with filamentous structures containing lysosomal membrane glycoproteins. Infect Agents Dis. 1993 Aug;2(4):227-31.